You are here
Home > Yoruba People > Diaspora > Pinheiro, Marinho, Domingo, Yoruba returnee families from the 18th century. Where are they now?

Pinheiro, Marinho, Domingo, Yoruba returnee families from the 18th century. Where are they now?

Fallback Image

While people like the Bini had a longer history of trading with the Portugese , the  Yoruba connection with Portugese/Brazilian culture  was made much later in the 18th century when previously enslaved Yorubas started to return to the homeland. Pinheiro, Marinho, Domingo etc are all surnames of Yoruba families in Lagos.

Unlike places  like Sierra Leone and Liberia, where other so called natives and returnees interfaced and feelings of superiority surfaced among the  returnee families, Lagos did not seem to experience or entertain such. Perhaps this was because the returnees were not randomly dropped in Lagos, but chose to return to their homeland.

At the time and until recently, returnees inhabited certain Lagos suburbs like Popo Aguda where they built family homes with exquisite Brazilian style plaster decorations on the window frames and doorways .  Other Brazilian influences were brought along with them, food for one.

Where are the Brazilian legacies (architecture, food, surnames ) now? Largely in decline because with one or two exceptions, the Yoruba Brazilian families are no longer prominent in general society now, having been reabsorbed into the larger Yoruba population through marriage (It was a thing of pride back in the day to marry from the Cardoso, for example, family). They may also have been out-hustled by other Yoruba groups in the scramble for Lagos/Nigeria.

Barely 150 years later, with the last prominent businessman of the Brazilian returnee families (Chief Deinde Fernandez ) passed on , can we say that the Brazilian era of Lagos is completely finished?   Some would say this reabsorption is a good thing, a reset to default, seamless integration. After all that was the intention of the returning families, to come back home and become one again with their Yoruba kinfolk, wasn’t it? The (slavery) wound healed without a scar.


Late Chief Deinde Fernandez

This article  below in the Daily Mail interviews a descendant of one of the Brazilian returnee families who (naturally?) appears to mourn the faded Brazilian influence-


Lagos losing splendour of its Afro-Brazilian past

Octogenarian Yewande Oyediran sits back in a comfy armchair in her living room in the “Campos” quarter of Lagos, with its fading Brazilian heritage.

She talks about her great-grandfather Joao Esan da Rocha, from Osun state in southwest Nigeria, who was captured by slave traders in the 1850s, taken to South America and later freed.

“Frejon” — a coconut bean soup popular in Nigeria and Brazil and eaten in the week before the Christian holiday of Easter — is also a favourite topic.

The Holy Cross Cathedral in Lagos was designed by African slave artisans from Brazil ©Pius Utomi Ekpei (AFP/File)

“I don’t wait until Good Friday to eat ‘frejon’,” she said. “I cook and eat it throughout the year.”

But such Brazilian influences on daily life in Nigeria’s financial capital are rapidly becoming hard to find.

Descendants are ageing, the pastel-shaded buildings of the “Campos” are being torn down, and few people, if any, speak the Portuguese brought back to West Africa by freed Yoruba slaves.

Only the colourful annual street carnival and a legacy of surnames such as Cardoso, d’Almeida, de Costa, da Silva and Gonsalves remind Lagosians of links to a South American past.



  • Afro-Brazilian architecture –


The declining influence is reflected in the dwindling number of Afro-Brazilian-style buildings in Lagos and nearby Badagry, from where thousands of slaves were shipped to Brazil, mainly to Salvador in the coastal state of Bahia.

Freed slaves, most of whom had converted to Roman Catholicism, began returning in the mid-1800s, bringing with them their new faith and architectural influences.

The “Water House” in the dilapidated “Campos” on Lagos Island was built in 1895 and along with the nearby Roman Catholic cathedral is one of the best examples still standing.

Other structures include the Shitta Mosque, which was built in 1892.

The buildings were a reflection of the new-found status of former slaves, many of whom went on to become government officials and successful businessmen after their return.

Oyediran’s great-grandfather, for example, is thought to have been Nigeria’s first millionaire.

But preserving heritage or, as elsewhere, making it a draw for tourists, has largely failed, as Lagos mushroomed into a megacity that is now home to an estimated 20 million people.

More domestic and foreign tourists could help Nigeria’s economy, which has been battered by the global fall in oil prices since mid-2014, as well as by mismanagement and fraud.

One official in the Lagos State Ministry of Tourism, however, described efforts to maintain and preserve the city’s Brazilian-influenced history as “lacklustre”.

“These feeble attempts have been hampered by funding and corruption,” he told AFP on condition of anonymity. “The children of the owners of these buildings are also not helping matters.

“Many of them do not value the historical monuments they live in.”


A dilapidated residential Afro-Brazilian-style building at the Brazilian quarter in Lagos ©Pius Utomi Ekpei


Most of these Afro-Brazilian-style structures have either been redesigned or demolished to make way for characterless high-rise buildings, said Abiola Kosoko, a tour guide.

Yet the returning ex-slaves from Brazil “took over Lagos by storm with their special building designs,” he said.

“Decades back we had about 900 of those buildings on Lagos Island, in (the suburbs) Ikorodu, Epe and Badagry. There are less than 40 of those buildings still standing now.

“The disappearance of Brazilian heritage has been drastic. Most of the buildings were pulled down for development’s sake.”

An Afro-Brazilian-style building collapsed on Lagos Island recently, added Kosoko, a royal prince as his great-grandfather was the king of Lagos, and who is writing a history of the city.

“Nobody cared to preserve it. They allowed the one-storey building, an architectural masterpiece, to disintegrate,” he said.

“Even the annual ‘Brazilian Carnival’ and the ‘Fanti’ (Brazilian-style celebration of life and community shows) which used to attract foreign tourists are fast losing their allure these days,” said Dayo Medeiros, whose ancestors were taken to Brazil.

“They are sometimes hijacked by area boys (local gangs).”

University tutor Tundonu Amosu, author of “Jaded Heritage: Nigeria’s Brazilian Connection”, blamed life in Lagos, where traces of British colonial times have been virtually eradicated.

Most members of the Brazilian community “have melted into the generality of Lagos people and life”, he said.

Many of the descendants of Brazilian returnees “sold their property along the Marina (shoreline) on Lagos Island,” further making their culture fade into “insignificance”, he added.

“It is a pity that we allowed the Nigerian factor to creep into it.”

Liberated African slave artisans from Brazil were reputed for their exuberant and individualistic style on doorways, brightly painted facades and chunky concrete columns, borrowing from the baroque styles popular in Brazil in the 18th century ©Pius Utomi Ekpei (AFP)





Similar Articles

2 thoughts on “Pinheiro, Marinho, Domingo, Yoruba returnee families from the 18th century. Where are they now?

  1. A very interesting and emotional article. As a descendant of an Afro-Brazilian family (Balthazar) myself, I can totally relate to this article. For example our family house at the Brazilian quarters ( Aroloya street) had to be completely pulled down and rebuilt because part of the building had started to collapse due to several years of neglect. My family is desperately trying to salvage whatever we can of our Afro-Brazilian heritage.

Say what you feel

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.